Table 1 lists a number of X. fastidiosa strains and their ornamental host sources (extracted from Hernandez-Martinez et al. In areas where the glassy-winged sharpshooter is established, the principal reason for controlling the glassy-winged sharpshooter is to prevent the spread of X. fastidiosa to susceptible plants. Ecological engineering, habitat manipulation and pest management. At this time, April 2011, no releases have been made. For current information regarding glassy-winged sharpshooter see the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA) website. Researchers at the University of California at Riverside (UCR), United States Department of Agriculture’s Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) and the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA) have pursued classical biological control strategies to reduce populations of GWSS in California. Citrus Drive Riverside, CA 92521, tel: (951) 827-4714 email:, COLLEGE OF NATURAL & AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, Vibrational Mating Calls of the Blue-Green Sharpshooter, 3.1 Foreign Exploration for Natural Enemies in the Pests' Home Range, 3.2 Competitive Ability and Biological Control Potential of, 6 Natural Enemy Phenology in Southern California, 7 Enhancing GWSS Parasitoid Survival and Parasitism Rates in the Field, 8 The Invasive Potential of the Glassy-winged Sharpshooter, Irvin, Nicola A., Hoddle, Mark S., Castle, Steven J. 2003. Glassy-winged sharpshooter adult. The Glassy-Winged Sharpshooter is a large leafhopper that is native to the Southeastern part of the United States and New Mexico. In addition to GWSS, A. epos successfully completed development in the eggs of six other cicadelid species tested, H. liturata, G. atropunctata, Amblysellus grex (Orman), Erythroneura variabilis Beamer (variegated leafhopper), Macrosteles severini, and Circulifer tenellus (Baker) (beet leafhopper) (Krugner et al. (Eds. The density of searching female parasitoids has a significant effect on the sex ratio of progeny produced. In: denBoer, P. J., Gradwell, G. R. Parasitoid populations are typically low early in the year, providing modest parasitism (10 to 50%). Tel: (951) 827-6555, Geology Building, Room 2258Tel: (951) 827-6555Fax: (951) 827-5104, Department of Entomology Authorization for the release of G. tuberculifemur in California has received preliminary approval, pending final confirmation (CDFA, 2005; D.J.W. Check traps once per week beginning at budbreak and more frequently after 2-3 days of warm weather. Conservation biological control is affected by either (1) habitation manipulation to improve natural enemy fitness and effectiveness; or (2) reducing mortality of natural enemies caused by pesticide use. These potential silent X. fastidiosa reservoirs may harbor bacteria without expressing disease symptoms and, with the arrival of a vector such as GWSS, pathogen transmission to susceptible host plants could conceivably occur. Yellow sticky cards are the preferred monitoring method for government agencies that track glassy-winged sharpshooter populations. The habitats occupied by three other native sharpshooters, however, have less overlap with GWSS in addition to being from a different tribe. Choice and no-choice assay designs would need to be conducted to determine if similar levels of polyphagy would be observed in areas where releases of G. tuberculifemur would be considered (i.e. Production and release of A. epos was discontinued in 2009 after no recoveries were made from GWSS eggs collected from field release sites (D. Morgan, CDFA, pers. In 2010, average peak population densities of GWSS were only ~7% of what was measured in 2002, indicating that populations of this pest have declined by around 93% at this study site. However, when given a choice between GWSS eggs 1, 3, and 5 days of age presented simultaneously to G. ashmeadi and G. triguttatus, no oviposition preferences were observed (Irvin and Hoddle 2005). parasitoids used for the classical biological control of GWSS. Once acquired, sharpshooter adults are infective immediately, and they remain so for the remainder of their life. PIs: Bryce Falk Reports: Want to be notified when new reports are submitted for this project? Prior studies on other species of parasitoids have shown that larger female parasitoids are more reproductively successful in the field than smaller females (Kazmer and Luck, 1995; Ellers et al., 1998) and they also experience reduced risk from environmental challenges because they are more robust (Bartlett, 1962). The most probable cause for GWSS population declines are natural enemies, in particular egg parasitoids, with G. ashmeadi being the major contributor to GWSS suppression at UCR Ag. Other strains of X. fastidiosa cause phony peach disease, plum leaf scald, bacterial leaf scorch in a wide range of shade trees (sycamore, elm, maple, oak), citrus variegated chlorosis, coffee leaf scorch, and olive quick decline disease, but these diseases have not been confirmed in California. In Southern California and in the San Joaquin Valley, the glassy-winged sharpshooter typically has two generations per year. Like G. tuberculifemur, G. deleoni has no evolutionary history with H. vitripennis and if released into California, this would make G. deleoni a “new association” biological control agent of H. vitripennis. Oleander leaf scorch has been estimated to have caused damage in excess of $52 million along 2,000 miles of freeway median plantings (Costa et al. The Honolulu Advertiser, May 14, 2004, Honolulu. No-choice laboratory studies showed progeny production for G. ashmeadi, G. triguttatus, and G. fasciatus was greatest from GWSS eggs 3, 4 and 2 days of age, respectively (Irvin and Hoddle, 2005). Varela LG, Smith RJ,  Phillips PA. 2001. 13 Jul. This requires careful monitoring and detection. Nondiscrimination Statement. It has been demonstrated in laboratory studies that there is a positive correlation between size of female G. ashmeadi and initial egg load at time of birth (i.e., females < 12 hrs of age (Irvin and Hoddle 2009). )], and the Cook Islands [established 2007 (Disna Gunawardana pers. Jones, W. A., Logarzo, G. A., Triapitsyn, S.V., Casas, M., Virla, E. G., Purcell, A.H., 2005a. Exudates can … April 2008. It is common to find this insect on acacia, avocado, eucalyptus, citrus, crepe myrtle, heavenly bamboo, grape, photinia, pittosporum, hibiscus, periwinkle, xylosma, some roses, and many others. Praying mantis, assassin bugs and lacewings are also extremely … Preliminary results suggest that cover cropping may not prove to be a viable option for grape growers in southern California due to the difficulty of establishing cover crops in southern California climate, cost of irrigation water, and both cover crops testing positive for harboring X. fastidiosa. Glassy-Winged Sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis The Situation: The glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), likely introduced from the southeastern U.S. as eggs on nursery stock, was first observed in Orange and Ventura counties in California in 1989. Their wings appear brown with small red veins, and their face and legs are yellow-orange. 2006a. The eighth species of cicadelid tested, Siphanta acuta (Walker) (the torpedo bug) was not a suitable host. This was very annoying because adult GWSS would die and need to be swept up, the wingbeat frequency of adults flying past heads caused an unpleasant “buzz” in ears, and adults would occasionally “bite” people when they landed on exposed skin and probed with their needle-like mouthparts. Gonatocerus fasciatus may have performed poorly because: Alternatively, the competitive inferiority of G. fasciatus may simply be due to subordinate behavior when competing for egg masses with congeneric species. Within the state, exactly where this species can survive and reproduce is unknown. Canadian Entomologist 121: 829-840. Surveys indicated that less than 2% of individual eggs were attacked by generalist egg parasitoids in just 4% of egg masses collected. The head of the smoke-tree sharpshooter is covered with wavy, light-colored lines, while the glassy-winged sharpshooter head is covered with spots. Would Anaheim be wine country today if it weren't for Pierce's disease? The bluegreen sharpshooter (Figures 12 and 13), G. atropunctata, also in the cicadellini tribe, prefers humid, partially shaded and densely vegetated habitats. Survival of female G. ashmeadi provided citrus foliage infested with soft scale (Coccus hesperidum L. [a common citrus pest]) was 565% higher than parasitoids on citrus foliage alone, and alyssum increased female survival 252% compared with water. Hoover W. 2004. Reproductive and developmental biology of. 1998). The glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (formerly H. coagulata), is an insect that was introduced into California in the late 1980s. Glassy-winged sharp- shooters have large smoky-brown wings with red markings and are very good flyers, … A healthy population of beneficial insects is the single most effective way to control sharpshooters. But the problem shot to prominence in the 1990s with the inadvertent introduction into California of the glassy-winged sharpshooter. Apr 10, 2017 - What is a glassy winged sharpshooter? Glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS) ... Control measures have been increasingly based on enhancing the population of indigenous parasites and predators. Effects of alyssum flowers on the longevity, fecundity, and sex ratio of the leafroller parasitoid, Carbone, S. S., Rivera, A. C. 2003. Hokkanen, H.M.T., and Pimentel, D. 1989. It overwinters as an adult feeding on citrus and other non-deciduous plants, moving to deciduous plants in January and February where adults feed on the sap from the leafless twigs before returning to the non-deciduous plants during cooler evening hours. PDF: To display a PDF document, you may need to use a 2008). If you find glassy-winged sharpshooter in an area not currently known to have this pest, immediately call the California Department of Food & Agriculture pest hotline at 1-800-491-1899, or contact your local agricultural commissioner’s office. Early detection and reporting are key elements in controlling Glassy-winged sharpshooter. Journal of Animal Ecology 70 (3): 442-458. Females lay egg masses, in groups of 8 to 12 eggs arranged side-by-side, under the epidermis of the lower leaf surface of young, fully developed leaves. The principal method of controlling this disease is to keep it out of the country, and this requires careful monitoring by biosecurity personnel. California Department of Food and Agriculture, Sacramento, CA, USA. 30 days at 24oC; Krugner et al. Be on the lookout and report it. Some examples of conservation biological control include the provision of grassy ridges called ‘beetle banks’ in cereal crops, sowing flowering plants underneath orchards and vineyards, the use of sown wild-flower strips, intercropping two food crops, and reducing pesticide use to conserve natural enemies. In: Tariq, M. A., Oswalt, S., Blincoe, P., Ba, A., Lorick, T., Esser, T. Under Queensland legislation if you suspect the presence of Glassy-winged sharpshooter, you must report it to Biosecurity Queensland on 13 25 23 or contact the Exotic Plant Pest Hotline on 1800 084 881. 2000). Based on results from these quarantine studies, we speculate that: (1) G. deleoni may have difficulties establishing in areas where G. ashmeadi is present, and (2) the potential impact of releasing G. deleoni in California may be negligible unless G. deleoni can occupy and provide substantial benefit a niche in the field not currently occupied by G. ashmeadi. Quarantine studies were performed to determine G. tuberculifemur’s viability and potential to be introduced into California as a biological control agent. 2008) so was expected to reproduce and proliferate at times of the year when GWSS eggs are not present. H. liturata and D. minerva were parasitized by G. fasciatus under a small scale Petri dish environment, thereby both proving to be physiological acceptable hosts for G. fasciatus. ANR ASSOCIATE EDITOR: AM Sutherland 343-344. 2001. The wasps will be used in an integrated fashion with ground treatment programs. First report of Xylela fastidosa in Avocado in Costa Rica. The ingest ion of dry sugars by adult entomophagous insects and the use of this feeding habit for measuring the moisture needs of parasites. This was the first time A. epos was collected from a sharpshooter species. Basic & Applied Ecology 4(2):107-16. Observations on the biology of, Triapitsyn S.V., Phillips, P.A. G. fasciatus was imported into California from Louisiana and released in 2002 (CDFA, 2003). comm.). Learn about managing glassy winged sharpshooters and tips on how to prevent transmission of dangerous plant diseases here. Adults are approximately 1⁄2 inch long and are generally dark brown to black when viewed from the top or side. As a minimum, planes and cargo bins should be carefully inspected, and/or treated in the countries where the glassy-winged sharpshooter is established (in particular Cook Islands, French Polynesia and the USA). Pest Notes: Glassy-winged Zwolfer, H., 1971. Complete an online form A full list of notifiable plant pests and diseases can be found in Schedule 2 of the NSW Biosecurity Act 2… Introduced parasitic wasps could control glassy-winged sharpshooter. PIDD Pest Information Document Database. Across California, GWSS has vectored X. fastidiosa, the causative agent of Pierce’s disease (PD), on grapes, almond leaf scorch, alfalfa dwarf, and oleander leaf scorch. Phylogenetic relationships of. (ed. Search . Exudates can coat leaves white when high populations are present. Establishment and recovery of G. triguttatus and G. fasciatus in the field has been very low (see above) and the results of these experiments may suggest why this is the case; G. ashmeadi is too strong a competitor and has successfully excluded these other species. To combat the GWSS infestation in French Polynesia it was decided that the best strategy to use would be classical biological control. 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